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HKDSE Diagnostic Feedback System (DFS)
HKDSE Diagnostic Feedback System (DFS)
The Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination (HKDSE) Diagnostic Feedback System (DFS) is a system powered by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA) and built on top of the Online Question Bank (OQB) platform to provide useful feedback to students and teachers and enhance "Assessment for Learning".
Estimated Grades and Experts' Feedback
There are more than 3,500 multiple-choice questions for 10 subjects (including Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Economics, and Business, Accounting and Financial Studies, Geography, Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Geography, Physical Education, and Information and Communication Technology) in the DFS. The HKEAA development team analyses and builds statistical models to estimate the expected grades of students in the HKDSE based on past HKDSE assessment data from 2012 onwards, and subject experts write feedback in accordance with the needs of students and teachers.
Diverse Paper Creation Methods
Teachers can create test papers in different paper creation methods (by year/ content domain/ cognitive domain/ item difficulty/ random) to designated students for assessment. Students can answer test papers directly on the platform, and the DFS will analyse their performance instantly.
Diagnostic Reports
The DFS provides separate feedback reports for students and teachers. Student reports show overall performance (in grades A to D), strengths and weaknesses, key knowledge/hint for wrong answers and model answers. Teacher reports provide a summary of all students' performance, an analysis of students' scores and performance, an analysis of each item, key assessment knowledge and answers for each item. Teachers can also access and read individual student reports.
Simple steps and get thorough feedback
With DFS, teachers and students can obtain comprehensive feedback in just a few simple steps (see Quick User Guide).
DFS flyer
Assessment enhancement programme
The Data-Driven Assessment Enhancement Programme provides training on the application of assessment technology (e.g., DFS), educational assessment and item writing for different HKDSE subjects. For more information, please refer to the Data-Driven Assessment Enhancement Programme .
Demonstration Video
Fee Schedule/Subscription
Please visit the OQB website for the DFS fee schedule and subscription procedures.
Frequently asked questions (FAQ)
Please refer to FAQ on DFS (Chinese version only).
For enquiries on the DFS, please contact us at (852) 3628 8511 or by email to